In 1902, Emmerich observed that an extracellular secretion of Bacillus pyocyaneus was capable of killing anthrax bacilli and could protect mice from the lethal bacterium. Not until that did people realize the importance and applications of enzymes in medical research. With the development of enzymology, the global enzyme market sizes up to USD 8.18 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach USD 17.50 billion by 2024, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Among all enzyme products, enzymes for medical research are expected to witness significant growth in the following years and share an increasing proportion of the market. Enzymes are used for various purposes in medical research, and a few examples are given below:
• Enzymes in new drug development
Lots of pharmaceutical share chiral preferences; therefore, the synthesis and development of chiral molecules are the vital parts of pharmaceutical manufacture. In recent years, using enzymes becomes popular in achieving chiral resolution, instead of chemical catalysis. The enzymatic route wins this application due to high selectivity and specificity of enzymatic reactions. Optical isomers containing both R- and S- configurations are often present as the final products of chemical catalyzed reactions. As a comparison, enzymes can easily yield chiral and pure molecules, and thus, solve the problem that bothers the traditional chemical synthesis for decades. Hitherto, many successful stories have already been demonstrated. For example, the pro-drug compactin is catalyzed by cytochrome oxidase to form pravastatin, which is a treatment of cholesterol related diseases.
• Enzymes in therapeutics
As enzymes are specific biological catalysts, they should make the most desirable therapeutic agents for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Although adverse immune responses may be caused by enzymes from sources foreign to the human body, the advanced techniques of genetic engineeringcan modify enzyme molecule to reduce or even avoid the antigenicity. A majority of enzymes are used as therapeutic agents. For example, asparaginase and glutaminase are used to treat leukemia, collagenases are used to treat skin ulcers, and hyaluronidases are used in a heart attack therapy. In the future, there will be more potential enzyme drugs for the treatment of cancer and neurological pathology, which are considered as the next biggest health challenges in the world.
• Enzymes in diagnosis
“Diagnostic enzymes” refers to enzymes used for diagnosis or prognosis. How are enzymes used in diagnosis? Because their high specificity and sensitivity to the substrate, even in the presence of other proteins, many enzymes are already used in diagnosis of bone diseases, cancer, and liver diseases, examples including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alanine transaminase (ALT). Enzymes can also be used in analysis and detection processes, such as coupled multi-enzyme reaction assays and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Due to the pivotal role in medical diagnostics, more research will be focused on these enzymes to reach clinical applications.
Creative Enzymes provides a whole spectrum of enzymes that cover many applications in the medical research area. Although enzymes in medical research do not require a large quantity, the enzymes need to be of high purity and stable activity to obtain accurate clinical and diagnostic information. The products of Creative Enzymes has been certified for maximum performance and stability by the professional team and high-standard process control.