Enzymes for Research, Diagnostic and Industrial Use


Official Full Name
Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase (EC, glucoamylase, amyloglucosidase (AMG), gamma-amylase, lysosomal alpha-glucosidase, acid maltase, exo-1,4-alpha-glucosidase, glucose amylase, gamma-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase, acid maltase, 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase) is an enzyme located on the brush border of the small intestine with systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose Most forms of the enzyme can rapidly hydrolyse 1,6-alpha-D-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in the sequence is 1,4.
Glucan 1#4-alpha-glucosidase; EC; glucoamylase; amyloglucosidase (AMG); gamma-amylase; lysosomal alpha-glucosidase; acid maltase; exo-1#4-alpha-glucosidase; glucose amylase; gamma-1#4-glucan glucohydrolase; acid maltase; 1#4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase

Product Name
EC No.
CAS No.9032-08-0
CAS No.9032-08-0
SourceE. coli
CAS No.9032-08-0
SourceRhizopus sp.
CAS No.9032-08-0
SourceAspergillus nig...
CAS No.9032-08-0
SourceRhizopus sp.
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Glucoamylase can hydrolyze α-1.4 glycosidic bonds and α-1.6 glycosidic bonds in liquid starch. In the hydrolysis process, starting from the non-reducing end of the substrate molecule, glucose is gradually hydrolyzed. The rate of hydrolysis depends on the type of glycosidic bond and chain length. The enzyme can hydrolyze α-1.4 glycosidic bonds and α-1.6 glycosidic bonds in liquid starch. In the hydrolysis process, starting from the non-reducing end of the substrate molecule, glucose is gradually hydrolyzed. The rate of hydrolysis depends on the type of glycosidic bond and chain length.

Protein structure of glucoamylase. Figure 1. Protein structure of glucoamylase.

Principle of action

For example, α-1.4 glycosidic bonds are linked compared to α-1.6 to form oligosaccharides such as isomaltose and panose. Reaction parameters for the production of high glucose syrup, the reaction time is long (40-100 hours). The recommended operating conditions are pH 4.5 and temperature 60˚C (140˚F). In the production process of high glucose syrup, under the recommended optimal conditions (see above), the recommended saccharification dose for 40 hours is 1.2 L/1000 kg DS, and the recommended saccharification dose for 100 hours is 0.41/1000 kg DS. Ion exchange or activated carbon treatment of the inactivated saccharification liquid generally deactivates AMG. In addition, heating the saccharification liquid at 80˚C (175˚F) for 5 minutes or 75˚C (167˚F) for 40 minutes will also deactivate AMG.

The Health Benefits of Glucoamylase

Every day, the typical human consumes large amounts of starches, and while these carbohydrates have some nutritional value, they cannot be absorbed or digested by the body without the help of enzymes. Glucoamylase is one of several digestive enzymes that can break down these starches into glucose, which is usable by the body. This encourages smooth digestion and may help deter common digestive upsets such as heaviness, lethargy, bloating, gas and loose stools. Here are some of the health benefits of glucoamylase.

  1. Relieve irritable bowel syndrome
  2. Glucoamylase combined with other enzymes can alleviate the negative effects of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A double-blind crossover study showed the effectiveness of enzymes such as glucoamylase in optimizing digestion. Healthy participants who ate high-calorie, high-fat meals took digestive enzymes, while other placebo participants did not. Their gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded for 17 hours, and it was found that the bloating, flatulence and fullness of people taking this enzyme were statistically significantly reduced. Researchers suggest that because of these results, digestive enzymes may contribute to IBS.

  3. Help digestive system discomfort and gastrointestinal diseases
  4. Many people take digestive enzyme supplements and describe them as a little efficiency gain for the digestive system. There are many anecdotal reports that people’s digestion is smoother, their sensitivity to food is reduced (usually they may "disagree" with them), and gastrointestinal diseases have been improved by supplementing digestive enzymes. Commonly mentioned benefits include relief of symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, refueling, heartburn, bloating and loss of appetite.

  5. Support the immune system
  6. Studies have shown that glucoamylase combined with other enzymes can promote normal autoimmune reactions. In the case of autoimmune diseases, if antigens and antibodies are not cleared over time, they can cause tissue damage in the body. This can lead to rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and certain types of kidney disease. Although not a way to prevent disease, research shows that enzymes can affect the immune system in beneficial ways.

  7. May help digestive organs
  8. Studies have shown that supplementing enzymes can reduce the burden on the digestive organs. Animal experiments show that enzymes can create healthier intestinal health and better nutrient absorption capacity.

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