Introduction of ganoderma lucidum extract

Ganoderma lucidum is also known as Ganoderma Lucidum Karst, It is a fruiting body of the polyporaceae fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The size and shape of different ganoderma lucidum vary greatly. The large ganoderma lucidum has a cap of 20×10 cm and a thickness of about 2 cm. The cap of the common individual is 4×3 cm and the thickness is 0.5-1 cm. It has numerous small pores under the fungium, tube mouth is white or light brown, tube mouth is round, the inner wall is the hymenium, spores are produced at the top of basidium. Ganoderma lucidum is best grown in the forest, so this Ganoderma lucidum has the highest efficacy. There are also artificial greenhouses for growing Ganoderma lucidum, which is mainly grown in relatively humid places.

Ganoderma lucidum is a high-temperature fungus that grows between 15 and 35°C. Its optimum temperature is 25 to 30 ° C. The fruiting bodies can grow in the range of 10 to 32°C, but the optimum temperature for primordium differentiation and fruit body development is 25 to 28°C. When the temperature lower than 25°C, ganoderma lucidum fruiting body will grow slowly, it skin shell color also can become poor; When the temperature above 35°C, fruiting body will die. Ganoderma lucidum requires high humidity for growth. As the temperature difference between day and night increases, the time for the mycelium to fill the bag also increases.

Ganoderma lucidum is an aerobic fungus that needs fresh air throughout its growth and development. In particular, the fruiting bodies are more sensitive to carbon dioxide during growth and development. Ganoderma lucidum is very sensitive to light in the growth and development process. Light has obvious inhibitory effect on mycelium growth, so it grows fastest in the dark condition without light.

The most common extracts in Ganoderma lucidum are Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and acetone. Some of the main pharmacological effects of Ganoderma lucidum are achieved by them.

1) Anti-tumor effect

The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum has always been a hot spot for researchers. Its mechanism of action is more complicated, and there are many reports in the literature. Most scholars believe that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide is the main chemical basis for Ganoderma lucidum to exert anti-tumor effect. After research, the anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide seems to be related to the molecular structure of polysaccharides, strong inhibition of tumor activity was shown when the relative molecular mass of the polysaccharide was greater than 10,000 Daltons. At the same time, Ganoderma lucidum can also enhance the body’s tolerance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, so as to achieve anti-tumor effect.

2) Immune regulation

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide can increase white blood cells in the blood, induce or promote the phagocytosis of macrophages, and enhance the activity of T cells and natural killer cells. At the same time, it increases the conversion rate of lymphocytes and promotes the formation of immunoglobulins, thereby enhancing the body’s immune regulation and improving the body’s own disease resistance. The phagocytosis of macrophages is the main defense mechanism of the body against foreign bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites; it is also one of the important mechanisms of anti-tumor effects.  In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that Ganoderma lucidum has a wide range of effects on the immune function of humans and animals.

3) Scavenging free radicals

Scientific research has shown that oxygen free radicals may play an important role in aging, poisoning and certain diseases. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species and free radicals in the body cause lipid peroxidation in the cell membrane. Older lipofuscin is also thought to be a product of lipid peroxidation, which accumulates in nerve tissue, heart muscle and skin with age. Ganoderma lucidum acetone extract has an antioxidant lipid-producing effect in vitro. Ganoderma lucidum extract can effectively remove and reduce the damage reaction of free radicals to biological macromolecules, thereby achieving anti-aging effects.

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