Products

Enzymes for Research, Diagnostic and Industrial Use

Glutaminase


Official Full Name
Glutaminase
Background
Glutaminase catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate. Glutaminase is an amidohydrolase enzyme that generates glutamate from glutamine. Glutaminase has tissue-specific isoenzymes. Glutaminase has an important role in glial cells. Glutaminase catalyzes the following reaction: Glutamine + H2O → Glutamate + NH3.
Synonyms
EC 3.5.1.2; glutaminase I; L-glutaminase; glutamine aminohydrolase; Glutaminase; 9001-47-2

Catalog
Product Name
EC No.
CAS No.
Source
Price
CatalogEXWM-4409
ProductNameglutaminase
EC No.EC 3.5.1.2
CAS No.9001-47-2
Source
CatalogNATE-0307
EC No.EC 3.5.1.2
CAS No.9001-47-2
SourceEscherichia col...
Related Protocols
GLUTAMINASE(From E -Enzymatic Assay Protocol
glutaminase -Enzymatic Assay Protocol
Related Reading

Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-β-glutamine into L-glutamate and ammonia. Glutaminase is a kind of amidase. This enzyme is also contained in some bacteria and plant roots, but it has strong activity in higher animals. The optimal pH for enzymes in animal kidney and liver is 8.0, and the optimal pH for enzymes in cerebral cortex and omentum is 8-9, which is different in nature. Enzyme from E. coli, pH 4.7-5.1. This enzyme can be inhibited by glutamate, and has two types: phosphate-activated and inactivated. In the organism, the ammonia produced by the glutamine transferred from the peripheral tissues has the effect of regulating the alkali storage (kidney) and the synthesis of urea (liver) in the body.

Enzyme structure of glutaminase. Figure 1. Enzyme structure of glutaminase.

Distribution

Glutaminase is expressed and active in portal vein liver cells, and glutaminase, like glutamate dehydrogenase, generates NH3 (ammonia) for urea synthesis. Glutaminase is also expressed in the epithelial cells of the renal tubules, where the ammonia produced is excreted in the form of ammonium ions. This excretion of ammonium ions is an important mechanism of kidney acid-base regulation. During chronic acidosis, glutaminase is induced in the kidneys, which leads to an increase in the amount of ammonium ions excreted. Glutaminase can also be found in the intestine, so the hepatic portal vein ammonia can be as high as 0.26 mM (arterial blood ammonia is 0.02 mM).

Functions

One of the most important functions of glutaminase is found in the axon ends of neurons in the central nervous system. Glutamate is the most used excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. After being released into the synapse for neurotransmission, glutamate is quickly taken up by nearby astrocytes and converted into glutamine. This glutamine is then provided to the presynaptic ends of neurons, where glutaminase converts it back to glutamate for loading into synaptic vesicles. Although both "kidney type" (GLS1) and "liver type" (GLS2) glutaminase are expressed in the brain, it is reported that GLS2 is only present in the nucleus of central nervous system neurons.

Related enzyme

Applications

Reference

  1. Griffin M.; et al. Transglutaminases: nature's biological glues. The Biochemical Journal. 2002, 368 (Pt 2): 377–96.

Sitemap | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions
Copyright ©2011 - 2021 Creative Enzymes.
Contact Us 45-1 Ramsey Road, Shirley, NY 11967, USA
Email: info@creative-enzymes.com
Tel: 1-631-562-8517 1-516-512-3133
Fax: 1-631-938-8127
Distributors To view the contact information for a specific location, select the desired country or region: