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Multi-Enzyme Cascade Reaction Systems

Biocatalysts, largely enzymes, have proven to be powerful in many industrial and biomedical processes due to their energy-efficient catalytic manners, unique selectivity for substrates, and absence of organic and toxic reagents. In nature, multiple enzymes often work together as a catalytic system that accomplishes catalysis in a highly efficient way, where the intermediates are transported between adjacent active sites of enzyme subunits or of different enzymes.

Inspired by multi-enzyme reaction systems in nature, researchers have devoted efforts to reconstitute those cascade reaction systems in vitro with precise engineering designs. Except for modification of enzymes with strategies based on the combination of biological, chemical and computational methods, researchers have exploited techniques to immobilize and co-localize enzymes, either through covalent linkage to one and the same macromolecular scaffold or by direct coupling a set of enzymes to each other.

Multi-Enzyme Cascade Reaction Systems Figure 1. Chemical approaches for the co-localization of multiple enzymes
(Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 2013)

Creative Enzymes offers professional services for development of multi-enzyme reaction systems:

With the most advanced technologies of molecular biology and the use of immobilization protocols, Creative Enzymes supports virtually every step of research and development on multi-enzyme reaction systems. Please contact us for your specific need, and we will certainly customize the workflow and experiment design to meet your goals.

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Multi-Enzyme Cascade Reaction Systems


  1. Palomo, J.M., Filice, M. (2015) New emerging bio-catalysts design in biotransformations. Biotechnology Advances. 33: 605–613.
  2. Schoffelen, S., Van Hest, J.C.M. (2013) Chemical approaches for the construction of multi-enzyme reaction systems. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 23: 613-621.
  3. Jia, F., Narasimhan, B., Mallapragada, S. (2014) Materials-based strategies for multi-enzyme immobilization and co-localization: A review. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 111: 209-222.

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