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CoA


Official Full Name
CoA
Background
Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. All genomes sequenced to date encode enzymes that use coenzyme A as a substrate, and around 4% of cellular enzymes use it (or a thioester, such as acetyl-CoA) as a substrate. In humans, CoA biosynthesis requires cysteine, pantothenate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Synonyms
Coenzyme A; CoA; Coenzyme A# free acid; 85-61-0; CoASH; HSCoA

Catalog
Product Name
EC No.
CAS No.
Source
Price
CatalogNATE-0146
EC No.
CAS No.18439-24-2
SourceYeast
CatalogNATE-0145
EC No.
CAS No.85-61-0
Source
Related Reading

Coenzyme A is a coenzyme. It is worth noting its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. All enzymes encoded by the genome sequencing date use coenzyme A as a substrate and use (or thioesters, such as acetyl-CoA) as a substrate in about 4% of cellular enzymes. In humans, coenzyme A biosynthesis requires cysteine, pantothenic acid, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mainly involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and pyruvate.

Structure of Coenzyme A Figure 1. Structure of Coenzyme A.

Functions

Pharmacological action

Coenzyme A is extracted from fresh yeast. It is the coenzyme for the acetylation reaction in the body. It can be combined with acetate to form acetyl-Coenzyme A. It enters the oxidation process and plays an important role in the metabolism of sugar, protein and fat; the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the body. The synthesis of acetylcholine, the storage of liver glycogen, the reduction of cholesterol and the regulation of plasma fat content are all closely related to coenzyme A. However, some people currently believe that pantothenic acid, the main component of Coenzyme A, is not lacking in the human body. Generally, patients do not need to supplement Coenzyme A. Exogenous Coenzyme A is a macromolecule and cannot easily enter the cell through the cell membrane, so its efficacy is questionable.

Applications

Coenzyme A can be obtained from various chemical suppliers in the form of free acid and lithium or sodium salt. The free acid of Coenzyme A is unstable. It degrades by about 5% after 6 months of storage at -20°C, and is almost completely degraded after 1 month of storage at 37°C. The lithium and sodium salts of CoA are more stable, and under different temperatures, the degradation within a few months is almost negligible. The aqueous solution of Coenzyme A is unstable when the pH is higher than 8. After 24 hours at 25°C and pH 8, it loses 31% of its activity. The CoA stock solution is relatively stable when frozen at pH 2-6. The main way for the loss of CoA activity may be the air oxidation of CoA to CoA disulfide. CoA mixed disulfides, such as CoA-S-S-glutathione, are common contaminants in the commercial preparation of CoA. Free CoA can be regenerated from CoA disulfide, or it can be mixed with CoA disulfide and a reducing agent (such as dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol).

Reference

  1. Tsuchiya, Yugo.; et al. "Protein CoAlation: a redox-regulated protein modification by coenzyme A in mammalian cells. Biochemical Journal. 2017,474 (14): 2489–2508.

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